Category Archives: al-Fiqh al-Akbar (Islamic Creed)

Handouts and Notes from al-Usool ath-Thalaathah

As our fellow student Aboo Shaybah, may Allah preserve him, mentions: “This is a collection of handouts prepared for the book al-Usool ath-Thalaathah which we covered as a small weekly reading session in the Scott Religious Centre at York University (Toronto) during the second semester of the 2003-2004 academic year. The handouts contain only the text of the book in both English and Arabic taken from “Notes to the Three Tenets” published by Dar alKhair (the original Arabic entitled Haashiyah al-Usool ath-Thalaathah of ‘Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Muhammad ibn Qaasim).”


How Does Belief in Allah aza wa jal Having a Hand Effect Me?

Bismillah ar rahman ar raheem, alhamdulillahi rabil alameen, wa salatu wa salam ala nabiyyina Muhammad, wa ala alahi wa ashabihi ajmaeen, ama b’ad;

My wife was posed the above question and then came home to inform me about it, and I was extremely upset and saddened by the question, as it showed a clear lack of knowledge, specifically concerning the subject of Aqeedah (Islamic belief).

The question itself belittles the most important characteristic of the religion, which is belief in our Lord, the most high. This belief is what distinguishes us from the disbelievers and from those who innovate within the religion. So how important is this belief?

In order to understand our Creator, we must accept who and what He is first, and this cannot be done except by returning back to the texts (from the Quran and the Prophetic Sunnah) which he provided us with in order to understand Him. Why provide us with texts that describe Him?

For two main reasons:

  1. In order to draw closer to Him, and this can only be done by knowing Him, knowing His characteristics and what He desires from you.
  2. In order to test us. So we find those who believe in this names and characteristics as they came (which is what Ahlus Sunnah believes), and those that change their meanings (from the sects that place logic and intellect above religious texts), and those that outright reject them (from those that claim the texts are not to be taken upon their apparent meaning).

If we look at the nations of the past, the ones that distorted Allah’s names and characteristics were the Christians and Jews, so it is upon us to distance ourselves from their beliefs, specifically in Allah. Allah gives their examples multiple times in the Quran as an example for us to learn and benefit from, so why do we not take it??

Most groups who have strayed from the correct Islamic belief, did so in this aspect of Aqeedah (in Allah’s names and characteristics), so we should be extremely wary with such statements and questions.

This is how we deal with Allah’s names and attributes generally, so to answer the question posed above specifically I would say:

Because belief in His hand allows me to accept the fact that He has a hand. It also causes me to believe that He has a hand with which He aza wa jal is generous with. It is that hand that He places over the jama’ah (the group). His hand is open with generosity and good, and not closed as the Jews claim. His hand does not mean “power” as some deviated sects claim, it means He aza wa jal has a hand and is able to hold all of the creation (the heavens and the Earth and everything they contain) in it.

Yes, this does effect me. It affects my belief. It affects my eeman (faith) in him. It affects my taqwa (awareness of Him). It affects my love of Him and for Him, aza wa jal.

So every misguided belief in Allah’s being brings about a shortcoming in every single act of worship, to the point where a man feels he spent his entire life in His worship only to come on the day of judgment with a small percentage of what he believed he had done.

And to help visualize the problem with the presented question, I would pose a follow up question: Why does Him having a hand not affect you??


And Allah knows best.


Abu Sahl Farhan ibn Irfan Siddiqi

Makkah al Mukarramah

9/3/1434 H

The Meaning of Islam and The Testimony of Faith


What is the meaning of Islam?

It means to submit to Allah, The Most High, with monotheism (i.e. Tawheed), and to yield to Him by obeying Him, and to totally liberate oneself from associating any partners with Him (i.e. Shirk).  Allah, The Most High, said in the Quran, “And who can be better in religion than one who submits his face (himself)”. (Surah Nisaa: 125)  He, The Most High, also said, “And whoever submits his face (himself) to Allah, while he is a good doer, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold”. (Surah Luqmaan: 22).  He, The Most High, also stated in the Quran, “And your God is one God so you must submit to Him alone.  And give glad tidings to those who obey Allah with humility and humbleness”.  (Surah Al-Hajj: 34).

What is the meaning of the testimony (shahadah) “I bear witness that there is no diety worthy of worship except Allah”?

It means to negate the right of anything to be worshipped other than Allah, The Most High, and to affirm the right of worship for Allah alone without any partners.  Likewise He, The Most High, has no partner in His dominion.   Allah, The Most High, said in the Quran, “That is because Allah, He is the truth and what they invoke besides Him, then it is falsehood.  And verily, Allah, He is The Most High, The Greatest”. (Surah Al-Hajj: 62)

What is the meaning of the testimony (shahadah) “I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah”?

It is to absolutely, wholeheartedly believe that Muhammad is Allah’s servant and messenger who was sent to all of mankind, the humans and the jinn, as Allah The Most High said, “O Prophet! Verily We have sent you as a witness, a bearer of glad tidings and a warner.  And as one who invites to Allah by His permission and as a lamp spreading light”. (Surah Al-Ahzaab: 45-46)  So it is obligatory to believe in everything that he (the messenger) informed us of, as it relates to that which happened in the past as well as that which will happen in the future, believing that which he deemed permissible to be permissible, and that which he deemed impermissible to be impermissible.  It is obeying and conforming to that which he commanded with, along with refraining from that which he prohibited.  It is following his legislation and sticking to his way whether one is in public or private, all the while being pleased with what he has ordered with and submitting to it.  Indeed obeying him is obeying Allah, and disobeying him is disobeying Allah.  This is because he is the messenger of Allah carrying His message.  Allah didn’t allow him to die until He completed the religion with His messenger (salla Allahu alayhe wa sallam) and until he (salla Allahu alayhe wa sallam) delivered the clear message.  He (salla Allahu alayhe wa sallam) left his nation upon a clear path, it’s night is like it’s day and no one strays away from this path after the messenger, except that he is destroyed.[1]

[1] ‘Alaam as-Sunnah al-Manshoorah By Haafith bin Ahmad al-Hakamee (Rahimahullah)

Original Article:

Foundational Beliefs of Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah

“The aqeedah (belief) of Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah consists of three parts:  It consists of the clarification of the six articles of faith and what is connected to them from belief in Allah, oneness in His Lordship, oneness in worshipping Him, and oneness in His names and attributes, belief in the angels, in the books, in the Last Day, and in the Qadr (pre-ordainment) the good of it and the bad of it is from Allah, The Most High, and anything connected to that (which was previously mentioned).

The second part of the aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah is that a person follows the correct minhaj with regards to his dealings, which is in opposition to the misguided groups that oppose Ahlus-Sunnah.  And for this reason Ahlus-Sunnah discuss (in issues of aqeedah) commanding the good and forbidding the evil, obeying the rulers in those things that aren’t disobedience to Allah and not rebelling against them, issues about the sahaabah (companions) and the mothers of the believers (i.e. the wives of the Prophet), the issue of wiping over the khuffs, issues of hajj and fighting in the path of Allah with the leaders whether they are righteous or sinful.  There are many other issues that became issues of aqeedah because those issues were what separated the Sunni from the person from Ahlul-Bid’ah (The people of Innovations).

The third part of the aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah is akhlaaq (manners/character).  So if a person were to ponder over “Al-Wasatiyyah” (i.e. Al-Aqeedah Al-Wasatiyyah) by Shaykh al-Islam ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah), he would find that the shaykh broke the aqeedah down into the previous mentioned parts.  He clarified that the intent of the book was to clarify the aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah.  He said in the beginning of the book, “As to what follows.  This is the belief of the saved sect, the successful group, Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah”.  Then he went on to mention their aqeedah, and at the end of the book he mentioned the manners they possess within them then he mentioned some descriptions of Ahlus-Sunnah.  He said, they command the good and forbid the evil, they order with the establishment of the prayer, they stand for the night prayer, they keep the ties between kin and they command others to do the same, and they deal with the people with good manners, and there were other things he mentioned.

So when discussing the manners of the caller to Allah, it’s not a discussion of general upbringing or customary mannerism taught by one’s parents (rather these manners are from the religion of Islam).  So whoever makes a separation between these three parts of the aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah, then he doesn’t understand the aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah.  A person of the Sunnah is the one who follows all three parts of the aqeedah.  You’ll find that in his manners and da’wah he follows the Sunnah, and in his interactions with the people he follows the Sunnah, and in the affairs of aqeedah he follows the Sunnah.  (In general if a person follows all three aspects) he would have implemented the Sunnah of Muhammad, salla Allahu alayhe wa sallam.  Without a doubt the first two parts which are inclusive of aqeedah and minhaj are obligatory.  (The third part) Akhlaaq is broken down into that which is obligatory and that which is recommended depending on the detailed explanation of the issue…”

Taken from Shaykh Saalih ali-Shaykh’s lecture “The Manners of the Caller to Allah”

Original Article:

A Sign of the People of Innovation and a Sign of the People of the Sunnah

A summarized excerpt from the book Explanation of the Sunnah by Imam Al-Barbahari, with commentary by Ash Shiekh Al Allaamah Ahmed bin Yahyah An-Najmi

Whenever you see a man supplicating  against the ruler then know that he is a person of his desires, and whenever you see a man supplicating  for the uprightness of the ruler, then know that he is a person of the Sunnah,  Allaah willing.

Fudail ibn Iyaad said:

If I had a Supplication (surely to be accepted), I wouldn’t make it for anything except the ruler. It was said: Oh Abu Ali (Father of Ali) Explain this to us. He said if I supplicated for myself then its benefit would not go beyond me, and if I supplicated for the  ruler, then he would become upright, and the people and the land would become upright with his uprightness. So he ordered us to supplicate for them (i.e. the rulers) to be upright, and we were not ordered to supplicate against them even if they transgress and oppress because their transgression and oppression is against themselves (only), but their uprightness is for them and for the Muslims (in general).

The Shiekh  Ahmed goes on to comment, that this is a clear sign of the people of hizbiyah (partisanship), that they supplicate against the rulers, and they do not supplicate for them.

If it is said, that if the ruler becomes corrupted, then his corruption will corrupt the land and the people, and the supplication against them, is a means of uplifting the current corruption in the land; then we say that the one who forbid going against the ruler knows more about what is beneficial. Allah forbid going against the rulers, by the tongue of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessing of Allaah be upon him) whatever the corruption may be as long as it does not reach the level of Kufr (disbelief).

In the Hadeeth that is narrated by Umm Salamah reported in Sahih Muslim that the Prophet  said : There will be leaders that will become known, you will deny them, so whoever knows is free and whoever denies is safe, but whoever is pleased and follows. The Companions asked should we not fight them? The Prophet Muhammad said no they Pray!

And in another Hadeeth the Prophet was asked, Should we not ostracize them with the sword? The Prophet replied, No! Don’t they establish the prayer with you? Then he said if you see something from your leaders you dislike, then dislike the action, and don’t remove a hand from your obedience towards him.

Therefore, this clarifies to us the prohibition of turning against the rulers, whatever the corruption maybe, as long as it does not reach the level of disbelief.

Muhammad Abu Essa

Makkah, KSA


Original Article:

Explaining a Comprehensive Hadeeth about ‘Aqeedah

This essay is an explanation of a magnificent hadeeth which is an instance of the comprehensive statements of the Prophet (sallallaahualayhi wa sallam), concise in wording but profound in meaning. It comprises the fundamentals of ‘aqeedah and foundations of eemaan, and is deservingly considered a comprehensive text in ‘aqeedah which is recommended for a Muslim to read each night in order to renew his eemaan, firmly implant his ‘aqeedah, and strengthen his connection with his Lord, Most Mighty and Exalted.
The basis of the essay was a lecture delivered by ash-Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ibn ‘Abdil-Muhsin al-‘Abbaad al-Badr at the Islamic Institute in Gambia 25/6/1434h (5/5/2013).

The translator is our fellow student, Aboo Shaybah, may Allah preserve him.


The Importance of Monotheism (at-Tawheed)


Indeed monotheism (at-Tawhweed) is the principle upon which Islām is established. Monotheism is a condition for good deeds to be accepted, as well as for bad deeds to be forgiven. Adhering to monotheism is what enters the servant into Paradise, and what saves him from the Hellfire.

Monotheism was the cause of dispute between the Messengers, prayers and peace be upon them, and the idol worshippers. It was also the cause of swords being drawn in the path of Allah, as well as being the reason for the creation of the Paradise and the Hellfire.

As for the opposite of monotheism then it is polytheism (ash-Shirk), which removes the benefit from a person’s actions. Allāh, the Most High, says:

And indeed it has been revealed to you, as it was revealed to those before you: If you join others in worship with Allah, surely your deeds will be in vain, and you will certainly be among the losers. Nay! But worship Allāh and be among the grateful (Sūrah Az-Zumar: 65-66).

Every sin is forgivable except for polytheism. Allāh, the Most High, says:

Verily Allāh forgives not setting up partners with Him, but He forgives whom He wills, sins other than that, and whoever sets up partners in worship with Allāh has indeed strayed far away (Sūrah An-Nisā: 116).

So practicing polytheism prohibits the servant from Paradise and obligates his remaining in the Hellfire.

Therefore focusing on monotheism is from the most important and obligatory things upon a person; – likewise abandoning monotheism and not learning about it are from the greatest afflictions upon a person.


* An-Najmi, Aḥmad Yahyā. An Explanation of the Book of Monotheism. Jeddah: Maktabah Al-Asālah. 1427 AH/2006 CE


Taken from:

The Virtue of Duaa’ (Invoking/Calling on Allah)

All praise is for Allah alone and may prayers and peace be upon our prophet Muhammad peace and blessings be upon him, his family and all of his companions.

Indeed making duaa’ (invocation) is the best form of worship.  It has been mentioned in a hadeeth, “Duaa’ is worship” and Allah, The Most High, said: “And your Lord said: Invoke Me I will respond to you.  Verily those who scorn My worship they will surely enter hell in humiliation” (Ghaafir: 60).  Allah, The Most High, commanded us to make duaa’, he promised us an answer to our duaa’, and he informed us that duaa’ is worship.  He, The Lofty and Exalted, said: “Verily those who scorn My worship”. So He, The Most High, named it (i.e. duaa’) worship.  The [previous] hadeeth also shows that duaa’ is the greatest form of worship.  This is because there are many different forms of worship, but due to the fact that duaa’ is the greatest form of worship; it (i.e. duaa’) was referred to as worship in the previous hadeeth.

There are specific times wherein making duaa’ is encouraged and emphasized hoping the duaa’ will be answered.  From those times is this month (i.e. Ramadaan), and in this month the last ten nights, and within the last ten nights on Laylatul Qadr.  So this is an entire month of duaa’ along with [other forms of] worship, but during the last ten nights there is a stronger emphasis on making duaa’ with a stronger hope of it being answered during this time.  So it is for the Muslim to strive in making duaa’ in his salaat, in sujood, and rukoo’, and in all other situations, and to be persistent in making duaa’ to Allah, The Most High.  Allah, The Lofty and Exalted, said: “And when My slaves ask you concerning Me, then (answer them) I am indeed near (to them by My knowledge).  I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me.  So let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be lead aright” (Al-Baqarah: 186).  So Allah, The Lofty and Exalted, is near and He answers the duaa’, but the affair lies in the truthfulness of the servant and his turning to Allah, The Most High.[1]

We ask Allah, The Most High, to make us of those who sincerely call on Him and Him alone in times of ease as well as times of hardship, and may prayers and peace be upon our prophet Muhammad peace and blessings be upon him, his family and all of his companions.

[1] Al-Fawzaan, Saalih Fawzaan. Sittings in the Month of Ramadaan. Riyaad: Daar Al-Aasimah 1422H./2001 pgs. 98-99.

Taken from:

Guidance is From Allah


All praise is due to Allah, The Lord of all of the creation, and may the prayers and peace be upon our Messenger Muhammad:

Allah, The Most High, said in the Quraan: “Verily, you (Muhammad) guide not whom you like, but Allah guides whom He wills.” (Al-Qasas: 56). The great scholar of Tafseer (the science of explaining the Quraan), Ibn Katheer (2) (may Allah have mercy on him) said regarding this verse: “Allah the Most High is saying to His messenger, prayers and peace be upon him, ‘Indeed you guide not whom you like’, meaning it is not for you (i.e. Muhammad) to guide the people. But what is upon you (i.e. Muhammad) is to convey the message and Allah will guide whom He wills.” (3)

Also as it relates to the issue of guidance, Dr. Rabee bin Hadee (may Allah protect him) mentioned: “If Allah, The Most High, makes a person firm upon his religion and firm upon the correct belief, then this is a blessing from Allah, The Most High. So this person should not become arrogant, or boastful. Rather he should humble himself before Allah and be thankful to Allah, Lord of all of the creation, for that blessing of guidance so that Allah, The Most High, will protect his religion and distance him from any danger or deviation.

In addition to this, the person should not become relaxed. Allah, The Most High, said: ‘None feels secure from the Plan of Allah except the people who are the losers’ (Al-A’raf:99). Therefore we ask Allah every moment of our lives to make our hearts firm. The Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace be upon him) would constantly supplicate to Allah, The Most High, ‘O changer of the hearts, make my heart firm upon your religion’ (5)So ‘Aaisha (may Allah be pleased with her) said: ’O Messenger of Allah, you constantly supplicate to Allah with this supplication’. So the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace be upon him) said to ‘Aaisha: ‘Indeed the hearts of mankind are between two fingers from amongst the fingers of Allah, the Most High. If He chooses, He causes a person to go astray and if He chooses, He places a person firm upon guidance’ (6) / (7).

We ask Allah, The Most High, to make our hearts firm upon His religion and to guide us to that which is pleasing to Him. And may the prayers and peace be upon our messenger Muhammad, his family and all of his companions.



(1) CN: The scholars have explained that guidance is of two types. The first type is the guidance of the heart. There is none capable of guiding a person’s heart except Allah, The Most High. This is the type of guidance being referred to in this article. The second type is the guidance of clarification and directing to the straight path. This type of guidance is not restricted to Allah, The Most High. As Allah Mentioned in the Quraan: “And verily, you (Muhammad) are indeed guiding to a straight path” (As-Shooraa 52).

(2) He is the well known and respected Imaam Ismaaeel ibn Umar ibn Katheer. He is recognized throughout the Muslim world for his Explanation of the Quraan. From amongst his teachers were Shaykh Al-Islam Ibn Taymeeyah (728H) and Al-Imaam Al-Haafith Ath-Thahabee (748H). Ibn Katheer died in the year 774H at the age of 73 years. May Allah have mercy on him.

(3) Prepared by a group of scholars under the supervision of Ash-Shaykh Safee Ar-Rahman Al-Mubaarakfooree. The Shining Light (Summarized version of Tafseer Ibn Katheer). Riyadh: Daar As-Salaam AH1421/2000 pg.1024

(4) Ash-Shaykh Rabee bin Haadee Al-Madkhalee is from the elder scholars currently residing in Makkah. He was the former department head for the College of Hadeeth studies at the Islamic University of Medina. He continues to benefit the students of knowledge by teaching classes on a weekly basis from the privacy of his own home. May Allah protect him.

(5) Reported by Abu Dawud on the authority of Anas. Authenticated by Ash-Shaykh Al-Albaanee hadeeth #2140.

(6) Also reported on Umm Salamah, and Anas. See Abu Dawud #3522. Authenticated by Ash-Shaykh Al-Albaanee

(7) Al-Madkhalee, Rabee bin Haadee. Firmness Upon the Sunnah. Cairo: Daar Al-Imam Ahmad AH1428/2007 pgs. 8-9

Taken from:

The Importance of the Book: Thalaathatul Usool (i.e. The Three Fundamental Principles)

“It is upon us that we are persistent in teaching this book (i.e. thalaathatul Usool) to the general people, in the house to our women, to the children, and to others as well teaching each person according to his level of understanding. Our scholars (may Allah have mercy on them) use to show great importance to learning and teaching these three principles (i.e. thalaathatul Usool). There used to be a number of people who would sit with the scholars after every salaatul Fajr in order to learn and memorize theses principles…..The greatest thing that can be given to the Muslims, is that you give them that which will allow them to be successful when they are questioned in the grave by the two angels. This is because if he answers the questions correctly he will live after that in happiness, and if he answers incorrectly, he will live after that –and we seek Allah’s protection- a life of difficulty and punishment….”

Taken from Shaykh Saalih ali-Shaykh’s Explanation of Thalaathatul Usool

Taken from: